The wedding plan in India [1] calls for durable goods, money, and real or movable property donated by the bride’s family to her husband, her parents, or their relatives as a marital status. [2] Dowry is based on the laws of Indian heritage, and the Hindu Sacrifice Act needed to be amended to stop the practice of daughters. Dishes, cars and other household items that help the newlyweds set up their home. [4] Dowry is called Dahez in Arabic. [5] In the eastern parts of India, the call is called Aaunnpot.

Wedding gifts for the son of the Imam of Delhi, India, by 2000 soldiers and guests
The wedding plan can place a heavy financial burden on the bride’s family. [6] In some cases, the seizure system leads to crimes against women, ranging from emotional trauma and injury to death. [7] Payment of debit services has long been prohibited under certain Indian laws including the Dowry Prohibition Act 1961 and subsequently divided by Sections 304B and 498A [8] of the Indian Penal Code. Dowry Prohibition Act of 1961 defines expropriation: “Dowry means any material or special protection granted or permitted to be given directly or indirectly – (a) by one spouse and another party to the marriage; or (b) by parents or any other party to the marriage or any other person to another marriage in marriage or to another person; during or before the marriage as a consideration of the marriage of those parties mentioned, but does not include submissive or mahr in the case of persons to whom Islamic law applies. “[9]

The court ruling [10] specifies the official definition of dowry as

“Dowry” in the sense of a statement defined by the Dowry Prohibition Act is a requirement of an important security asset that has unparalleled access to the marriage, ie, taking into account from the parents’ parents or relatives of the groom or his or her parents and / or guardian marriage contract.

Section 3 explains that the penalty for giving or taking a marriage does not apply to gifts given during the wedding with the bride or groom when no need for them has been made.

Although India’s anti-nail laws have been in place for decades, they have been widely criticized for their failure. [11] The practice of homicides and shootings continues and can be detected in many parts of India, which has added to the growing fear of coercion. [12]

Section 498A of the Indian Penal Code dealt with the fact that the bridegroom and his family were automatically arrested if the wife complained of abuse. The law was widely violated, and in 2014, the Supreme Court ruled that arrests could not be made without the consent of the magistrate. [13]

History Status Edit

Wedding Ceremony – Bride Under the Gift Bed. Circa 1800.
The history of demolition in South Asia is unclear. Some scholars believe that the rule of law existed in the past, but others do not. Historical eyewitness accounts, as discussed below, suggest that the acquisition of handicrafts in ancient India was meaningless, and that daughters who had property rights, were still at the time of their marriage. Documentary evidence suggests that at the beginning of the 20th-century bride price, rather than being the norm, it often resulted in the poorest boys remaining unmarried. [14]

Stanley J.Tambiah claims that the ancient Manus Code was adopted by the law of reincarnation in ancient India, but cohabitation was an honorable practice and associated with the Brahmanic (priestly) case. The Blackwealth was confined to lower castles, which were not allowed to surrender.

The discovery of MacDonell and Keith is similar to Witzel, and different from Tambiah; They cite ancient Indian literature showing that the bridegroom was paid even in the form of brahma- and daiva-associated Brahmanic (priestly) marriages. Dowry was unusual when a girl suffered some physical trauma. Women’s property rights increased in ancient India, suggest MacDonell and Keith, in the period of the Epics (200 BC to 700 AD). [19]

Kane claims that ancient writings indicate that the bridegroom was paid only for the type of marriage asthma that was considered suspicious and that Manuel and other ancient Indian writers. Lochtefeld suggests that religious services written by Manuel and others, such as ‘the bride adorned with wedding garments’, were garments and jewelery and gifts that belonged to her, not the property the bridegroom wanted or made for himself. [20]

The above analysis by various scholars is based on the translation of verses from ancient Sanskrit false texts and inconsistent smritis from India, not eyewitness accounts. Visual acuity from ancient India gives a different picture. One of these eyewitness records from Alexander the Great conquered (ca. 300 BC) as recorded by Arrian and Megasthenes. Arrian’s first letter discusses a lack of commitment,

They (these ancient Indian people) make their marriages in line with this principle, because in choosing a bride they do not care that she has a round and beautiful money, but they look at her beauty and other benefits of the outsider.
Arrian, The Invasion of India by Alexander the Great, 3st Century BC [21]
Arrian’s second letter notes similarly,

They (Indians) got married without giving or giving dowries, but women as soon as they got married were brought before their fathers in public, to be chosen by the winner in wrestling or boxing or running or someone better than any other man.

Two sources suggest the hijacking was non-existent, or small enough to be recognized by Arrian. [23] About 1,200 years after Arrian’s visit, another eyewitness visited India, Abū Rayḥān al-Bīrūnī, also known as Al-Biruni, or Alberonius in Latin. Al-Biruni was a contemporary Muslim Persian scholar who traveled and lived in India for 16 years from 1017 CE. He translated many Indian texts into English, and also wrote texts on Indian culture and the life he saw. Al-Biruni says,

Good wedding accessories are brought to the fore. No gift (dower or dowry) is prepared between them. The husband gives the wife only a gift, as he thinks it is appropriate, and the gift of marriage in advance, he has no right to want to return it, but the wife (proposed) can give it back to him at will (if he wants to) he does not want to marry).

Al-Biruni goes on to say that the daughter, in the 11th century India, had the legal right to inherit from her father, but only a quarter of her brother. The daughter took the estate with her when she got married, demanded Al-Biruni, and had no right to receive the money her parents received after her marriage or other additional property after the death of her father. If his father dies before his marriage, his striker will first pay off his father’s debt, give him a quarter of the remaining wealth to him until he is ready to marry, and give him the rest to go with him.

Dowry in modern times

India’s public awareness campaign on the elderly
Dowry has been a very common practice in modern Indian times and in this case, it could be a way of paying money or gifts from the bride’s family to the groom’s family when they get married. There are variations in the increase in base strength based on geography and class. Northern countries can participate in the dock system between all classes, and the chances of being likely to be are in the form of material and movable property. [26] In the South, the bride price system is very common, and is usually by land type, or other heritage factors. The program is integrated with the social structure of the marriage, which keeps the marriage within or close to family relationships. [26]

Dowry also differs in economic strata in India. High-income families are more likely to be involved in the elderly program than in the lower class. This may be part of the women’s economic involvement in the labor market at higher levels.

While the emergence of natural pull originated in the Vedic period, it was actually followed by higher courts to benefit the bride, who could not obtain property under Hindu law. [35] [36] To address this, the bride’s family provided the groom with a bracelet that would be registered in the bride’s name. [37] This pull was seen as stridhan (Sanskrit: woman’s property). What is also significant is that while more fortresses practiced the practice of robbery, the lower price the wife worked to compensate for her family’s loss of income.

In modern times, the concept of natural attraction has arisen and Indian families no longer practice the traditional Vedic practice of kidnapping. In modern times, the custom of extorting goods requires that the bride’s family transfer the goods to the bridegroom’s family to consider the marriage.

Since weddings in India are a time of great celebration for each family, it is usually very pleasant. Therefore, Indian weddings involve the inclusion of large expenses and the accompanying wedding gifts from both family members. This is a general voluntary expenditure and varies from family to family depending on economic, social status, etc.

Many times, as part of this ‘give-and-take’, attempts by the groom’s family to dictate the amount of each gift and the specific downtrend requirements. In such cases, there is an element of coercion in the bride’s family and this is what has been recognized as a danger of being considered in modern times. rather it is what is given to the bride or to her parents.

Causes of the Dowry
Various reasons have been suggested as to the reason for the practice of retreat in India. This includes economic and social factors.

Economic factors
There are many economic factors that contribute to the knee system. Some of these include the estate arrangements and the economic status of the bride.

Some advice points to economic and legal weak institutions in inheritance positions placing women at risk, inheritance left to sons only. This leaves women dependent on their husbands and in-laws, who maintain the marriage upon marriage. Prior to 1956, including the British Raj, daughters had no inheritance rights to their family property. In 1956, India granted legal rights to daughters and daughters among Hindu, Sikh and Jain families, under the Hindu Succession Act (India provides the number of Sharia Muslims who receive legal status). Without the new inheritance law, marriage continues as a process in which the parents’ property is still distributed to his daughter in the marriage through a social process, rather than after the death of the parents in a slow process administered by a court under the Hindu Succession Act (1956).

Dowry provided, at least in theory, women’s economic and financial security in their marriages in the form of movable property. This helped to protect the family economy and provided security for brides at the same time. The system can also be used as a temporary inheritance, in which case when a woman is presented with tangible gifts, she may be deprived of her family inheritance.

For many, marriage has become a major financial burden on the family, and it may leave families destitute because of the demands of the groom. Demand for debt has increased over time.
Social factors
The formation and marital relations in some parts of India contribute to the struggle. In the north, the marriage usually follows the birth process (living with the groom’s family), where the groom is a non-related family member. The plan encourages marriage probably due to the exclusion of the bride’s family after the wedding as a means of her family inheritance. In the south, marriage is usually done within the bride’s family, for example with close relatives or close relatives, and far away from her family. In addition, couples may have the ability to acquire land as property, making it more important to the marriage, reducing the chance of further gossip about the bride price.

In addition to the marriage tradition that can have an impact on depth, social or cultural traditions, and the expectations of parents in marriage are important factors to consider. A 1995 study found that although people’s circumstances change with burns, infertility continues to occur. .

As India progressed in the fight for women’s rights, women continue to be marginalized in their family. Education, income, and health are some of the most important factors in the marketing system, and how much a woman controls herself.

Religious aspects
Dowry in India is not limited to any particular religion. It is common between Hindus and other religions. For example, Muslim Indians call injections as jahez, justifying the practice according to jahez-e-fatimi. Muslims divide the jahez into two categories: The first contains some important elements of the bride’s dress and the life of the reunion. Some were made of valuable goods, clothing, jewelery, money for the groom’s families, which were used to agree before negotiation. Dahez often far exceeds the cost of baraat parties and weddings. Dahez is different from paying money like Mahr or dower required by Sharia law.

Types of Dowry crimes
Recently married women may have become victims of arson-related violence because they have been economically and socially bound to their new husband. can arise from the threat or the occurrence of violence, so that the bride’s family is left with no choice but to give more power to protect their daughter. The eastern states of India show high rates of labor-related violence.

Dowry is considered to be a major factor in the fight against violence against women in India. Some of these crimes include physical violence, spiritual abuse, and the murder of young brides and grooms before marriage.

The types of degrading crimes are related to violence (including abuse and abuse), domestic violence (including physical, emotional, and sexual abuse), suicide and marital death (including bribery and murder).

Fraud
The 2005 Canadian film, Runaway Grooms, portrayed what happened to Indo-Canadian men using the men’s exclusion system. The men have falsely returned to India thinking they are looking for a new bride, but then leave the woman to return to Canada without her, as they had secured possession of her dowry.
Cruelty
Cruelty in the form of abusing or harassing a woman with the intention of forcing her to meet the demand for property or basic security is a criminal offense. Violence can be a form of verbal attack or it can be accompanied by beatings or harassment to force the woman or her family to compromise. In many cases, violence can even force a woman to commit suicide and has been directly condemned by anti-anger laws in India.

Domestic violence
Main topic: domestic violence in India
Domestic violence includes a number of abusive and intimidating behaviors including physical, emotional, economic and sexual abuse as well as intimidation, segregation and coercion. [48] ​​There are laws such as the protection of women in the Domestic Violence Act of 2005 that help reduce domestic violence and protect women’s rights.

Failure to commit suicide
Continued abuse by her husband and family with threats of harm can lead to suicide. In such cases, drastic crimes often lead to suicide, which includes all acts and attempts to deliberately counsel, encourage, or assist in suicide. A case of suicide attack is important because in many cases, the suspects often provide a defense that the person who committed suicide voluntarily, even if it is not true.

Dowry assassination

Dowry’s death and marital murder are related to the bride’s suicide or the recent murder of her husband and family due to dissatisfaction with her. It is common to end a series of domestic violence perpetrated by the husband’s family .More female death occurs when the young woman is unable to bear the abuse and abuse, committing suicide by hanging herself or poisoning herself. Dowry’s death includes the burning of brides where the couple is immersed in paraffin and then burned by her husband or family. Sometimes, because of their suicide, the bride may end up on fire.

Laws against Dowry
The first Indian law on arson to be enacted in the plaintiff was the Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961 and this law came into effect on 1 July 1961. It marked the beginning of a new legal framework for black oppression laws that effectively prohibited seeking, giving and taking power. Although providing illegal food is illegal, it is still common in many parts of India for a man to demand a certain amount of money from his wife’s family and in some cases, this results in a form of robbery and violence against a woman.

Continuing to strengthen the anti-corruption law and to prosecute the abuse of a husband or his relatives against a wife, new regulations were introduced in Indian Criminal Law – section 498A in the Indian Penal Code and section 198A in the Criminal Procedure Code 1983 which adds another side to protection from the abuse of young people. Although changes in India’s criminal law reflect the efforts made by lawmakers to eradicate property-related offenses, and although they have worked for many years now, they have been widely criticized for their failure.

Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961
The Dowry Prohibition Act of 1961 included anti-demolition laws passed in certain states. This law provides for a penalty in section 3 if a person gives, takes or receives an offer or receives a power to challenge. Penalty can be punishable by up to 5 years and a fine of more than ₹ 15,000 or a deposit amount, whichever is higher. A deduction from the Act is defined as any significant property or protection granted or permitted to be granted in respect of a marriage. The penalty for giving or taking a marriage does not apply in the event that gifts given during the marriage are unnecessarily made.

The Act provides for fines for direct or indirect seizure of property and provides for a fine that includes a prison term of less than 6 months and extended up to two years and a fine of 10,000. Dowry agreements are useless and if any claim is accepted by someone other than a woman, it should be passed on to the woman. The responsibility to prove that the crime was not committed belongs to the accused and not to the accused or his family. Under its jurisdiction to set rules to achieve its objectives under the Act, the Indian government introduced the keeping of Gift Lists in the Bride and Groom Laws, 1985. There are also certain state amendments to the Dowry Prohibition Act.
India’s criminal laws were thoroughly revised to include dowry as a punishable offense.Section 304B was added to the Indian Penal Code, 1860 (“IPC”), which makes death a crime punishable by a minimum sentence of 7 years imprisonment no. high life imprisonment. It provided that if a woman’s death was caused by a burn or physical injury or in suspicious circumstances within 7 years of marriage, there is evidence that prior to her death, she was brutally treated or abused by her husband or husband. A relative in relation to the need to seek marriage, then the husband or relative will be considered responsible for his death.

In addition, section 113B of the Evidence Act, 1872 (the “Proof of Evidence”), provides another way of thinking about the death of a husband when it is shown that prior to his death, the woman was tortured for want of property. Section 304B IPC and Section 113B of the Evidence Act facilitated the sentencing of many who were not arrested by the Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961. Section 113A of the Evidence Act provides for the same assumption of suicide attack (which is a sub-section. 306 IPC), in the event of the death of a married woman seven years of her marriage.

International conventions
India is a group of international human rights organizations that provide theoretical solutions to the problems of fraud. [75] These international conventions include the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (“UDHR”), the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (“ICCPR”), the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (“ICESCR”), the Convention. Abolition of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (“CEDAW”), and the Convention on the Rights of the Child (“CRC”). CEDAW enshrines rights related to depression-related violence: women’s rights. However, there are barriers to non-intervention and cultural renewal to prevent the application of international law to combat dowry death.

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